We have witnessed quantum computers in the past in gaseous and liquid states, but this time scientists have come up with a quantum computer built inside a diamond. This is a major breakthrough as scaling up the quantum computers in solid-state is much more viable than in the liquid or gaseuos state.
We all know that diamonds are girl's best friend, but not in case if it has impurities. However, it is not same in the case of scientists, who exploited the impurity of nitrogen to serve as a quantum bit (also known as qubit) of their quantum computer. Qubits in quantum computing have a unique property that differentiates them from traditional computers. While a signal can be encoded to either 0 or 1 at a time in traditional computing, qubits can have both these values simultaneously (this property is also known as superposition).
The property can be used to great effect in searching through the unsorted databases as it needs to traverse all the entries just once. Using a nitrogen nucleus as a qubit offers another advantage of having a longer decoherence time, thus more stability. An electron is used as the other qubit which performs computations much faster but falls victim to decoherence. To be more exact it is the spin of these subatomic particles that is used as a qubit and scientists used microwave pulses to switch the direction of electron spin to further cut down on decoherence.
Though this is just a two qubit quantum computer, the possibilities of scaling up this version of quantum computer is higher than the quantum computers in other states. Also the ability to beat decoherence in this experiment means we could witness more focus from the scientists community in this area.