Completing three decades of successful and innovative business, International Business Machine or popularly known as IBM, nicknamed “Big Blue”, has entered its 100th year of existence since its birth on June 16th, 1911 as Computing Tabulating and Recording (CTR) Co. This New York based global technology giant, with Samuel J Palmisano as its chairman and CEO, has over 4,25,000 employees across 200 countries. IBM creates and supplies computer hardware and its software across globe.
It also provides infrastructure, hosting, and consulting services from yesterday’s mainframe to tomorrow’s nanotechnology. With many awards and recognition to its credit, IBM is one of those rare companies in the world that binds the society with its products. Whether automating the social security system of US government in 1936, or becoming a technology partner in NASA's Apollo 11 space mission in 1969, or crusading against cancer by building state of the art integrated information management system in 2005, or originating as the leading super computer of the world, IBM is a true leader.
A US $100 billion company, IBM ranks as one of the largest and consistently profitable business establishment in the world. IBM enjoys the credit of having the largest patent in US with over 5,896 patents as of January 2011, compared to any other US company. It has also established nine research centers across the globe for innovation and development.
Recent Awards and Recognitions
The Successful Journey of IBM
Early days (1911- 1960)
Established as a result of merging four companies namely, the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, the Computing Scale Corporation, and the Bundy Manufacturing Company, IBM manufactured machines that ranged from commercial scales, dial recorders, tabulators, automatic scales, and industrial time recorders to meat and cheese slicers, along with tabulators and employee punched cards.
1914 - Thomas J. Watson Sr. joins CTR and brings in a profitable revolution within the industry and becomes the brain behind IBM.
1915 - Introduction of "THINK" slogan becomes a successful corporate mantra.
1920 - Introduction of innovative products like lock autograph recorder, the first complete school time control system, Electric Accounting Machine, and CTR printing tabulator.
1924 - C-T-R renamed as International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). Expansion and growth continues in US and reaches Europe.
1937 -IBM becomes the official provider of its tabulating equipment to the U.S. Government for its employment census record towards the Social Security Act.
1943- Introduction of Vacuum Tube Multiplier as an electronic calculator.
1944 –Completion of Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) which was known as Mark I and first computer developed by IBM jointly with Harvard University.
1948- Introduction of IBM’s first large scale digital calculating machine the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator and 604 Electronic Calculating Punch.
1949 – IBM’s first design for computation centers - Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator.
1952 – Introduction of IBM 701, its first large computer based on the vacuum tube. This product took over the traditional use into research to business applications such as billing, payroll, and inventory control.
1953 – Introduction of IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Calculator electronic computer and the IBM 702. The 650 became one of the most popular computers of IBM.
1954 - Launch of IBM 704 with advanced features of indexing, floating point arithmetic, and a more reliable magnetic core memory.
1957 – Inception of FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation), a popular scientific programming language originated by IBM.
1959 – Introduction of IBM 1401 data processing system and IBM 1403 printer. Becomes the highest seller of computers to business houses with 10,000 units sales.
1961- 1978 - IBM System/360 with software
1964 - Launch of IBM System/360 with software instructions and hardware which later enabled the users to upgrade it without the effort of rewriting the application.
1963 -IBM supports NASA towards tracking the orbital flight of the Mercury astronauts,
1964 – IBM establishes its headquarters in Armonk, New York.
1966 – Invention of DRAM by IBM scientist, Robert H. Dennard.
1970 – Introduction of IBM System/370 with virtual memory.
1971 – Invention of floppy disk which has been the best and standard storage devise for PCs for many years.
1974- Launch of Systems Network Architecture (SNA), a networking protocol.
The IBM 5100 Portable Computer
1975 - Introduction of the IBM 5100 Portable Computer, 50 lbs and $9000 of personal mobility.
1980-1999 -IBM personal computer
1981- Birth of IBM personal computer with expandable 128 kbs up to 256 kbs.This advanced small computer came with provision of one or two floppy disks drives and color monitor with a base prize of US $1,565. This eventually became a goodwill brand for IBM in later years and helped it to gain remarkable position in the market.
1984 – Introduction of Personal Computer/AT (Xerox 820-II), the IBM Portable Personal Computer; and the IBM Office Systems programs.
1985 – LAN technology introduced by IBM.
IBM's first laptop computer
1986 - 5140 “Convertible" an advanced version of earlier IBM PCs weighing 12 lbs and of 256K Random Access Memory, or “RAM" prized at $1,995 known to become IBM's first laptop.
1990 - IBM announces the introduction of System/390 family.
1992 – Introduction of IBM notebook computers called Thinkpad. It being a hot seller, has received more than 300 awards for its innovation.
1995 - Brings together complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) based processors into System/390 Parallel Enterprise Server
1997 – World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov gets his major defeat by playing with 32-node IBM RS/6000 SP supercomputer, Deep Blue. Indeed getting deep into the history of IBM’s yet another achievement. Also IBM enters ebusiness by innovatively using internet technology. It introduces Netfinity line of enterprise PC servers and IntelliStation line of Windows NT workstations.
1998 – Becomes world’s most powerful mainframe by its system/390 G5 Parallel Enterprise Server 10-way Turbo model. Also IBM scientist create world's first structure composed of individual atoms.
Invention of CMOS Gigaprocessor, which became the first microprocessor running 1 billion cycles per second.
1999 - Invention of powerful Blue Gene, a super computer with $100 million project.
2000 - Present
2000 – Production and execution of IBM ASCI White – Fastest supercomputer for US department of energy enabling faster and reliable internet transaction for unlimited users. IBM also developed supercomputer for US defense services making itself even more powerful than Deep Blue.
IBM ASCI White
Quantum mirage nanotechnology - This new age technology was discovered by IBM scientists to transport information using nanoscale electrons other than traditional wiring.
Carbon nanotube transistors
2001 – Invention of world’s first transistors out of carbon nanotubes which are very small cylinders of carbon atoms, smaller than even silicon-based transistors but stronger than steel. It became a future breakthrough for better and smaller versions of computer chips.
2005 - Crusade Against Cancer – Was one of the key social responsibility initiatives of IBM by joining hands with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the Molecular Profiling Institute, and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center. It helped in developing a Cancer treatment center with advanced integrated information management system.
2006 - Development of translation software for US forces to help them improve communication and translation between US military and Iraqi forces.
2007 - Formation of river watch using IBM Stream Computing in collaboration with The Beacon Institute. It became the first technology-based river-monitoring network, which enables the monitoring of New York's Hudson River. This project was made possible by IBM’s "Stream Computing," a novel computer programming.
2008 - This year yet again marked IBM as number 1 in Supercomputer for its Roadrunner. It became the most powerful and successful super computer model for Los Alamos National Laboratory, the fastest with one quadrillion calculations per second: remains the world speed champion.
IBM Roadrunner No.1 Supercomputer
The invention and successful implementation of future generic products and services of IBM seems a never-ending process. In addition to it is the recent IBM’s new chip technology with pulses of light.This technology promises to enable connection of computer chips with pulses of light rather than conventional electric signals.
IBM’s new chip technology using pulses of light
IBM is an excellent example for preserving the past and venturing into the future as a forerunner, visionary, and leader of change management and survival. Its principles are growing stronger and stronger with still attached to its roots. IBM will continue to make a name for itself in the books of technological advancement as that established organization which transforms the future into present.